RP Photonics logo
RP Photonics
Encyclopedia
Consulting Software Encyclopedia Buyer's Guide

Short address: rpp-con.com

Dr. Paschotta, the founder of RP Photonics, supports your R & D with his deep expertise. Save time and money with efficient support!

Short address: rpp-soft.com

Powerful simulation software for fiber lasers and amplifiers, resonator design, pulse propagation and multilayer coating design.

Short address: rpp-enc.com

The famous Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology provides a wealth of high-quality scientific and technical information.

Short address: rpp-bg.com

In the RP Photonics Buyer's Guide, you easily find suppliers for photo­nics products. As a supp­lier, you can profit from enhanced entries!

Learn on lasers and photonics every day!
VL logo part of the
Virtual
Library

Bragg Mirrors

<<<  |  >>>  |  Feedback

Buyer's Guide

Use the RP Photonics Buyer's Guide to find suppliers for photonics products! You will hardly find a more convenient resource.

Ask RP Photonics for the design of a Bragg mirror (or other dielectric mirror) which suits your application. RP Photonics has the software RP Coating for such purposes.

Acronym: DBR = distributed Bragg reflector

Definition: mirror structures based on Bragg reflection at a period structure

German: Bragg-Spiegel

Category: photonic devices

How to cite the article; suggest additional literature

A Bragg mirror (also called distributed Bragg reflector) is a mirror structure which consists of an alternating sequence of layers of two different optical materials. The most frequently used design is that of a quarter-wave mirror, where each optical layer thickness corresponding to one quarter of the wavelength for which the mirror is designed. The latter condition holds for normal incidence; if the mirror is designed for larger angles of incidence, accordingly thicker layers are needed.

The principle of operation can be understood as follows. Each interface between the two materials contributes a Fresnel reflection. For the design wavelength, the optical path length difference between reflections from subsequent interfaces is half the wavelength; in addition, the amplitude reflection coefficients for the interfaces have alternating signs. Therefore, all reflected components from the interfaces interfere constructively, which results in a strong reflection. The reflectivity achieved is determined by the number of layer pairs and by the refractive index contrast between the layer materials. The reflection bandwidth is determined mainly by the index contrast.

Figure 1 shows the field penetration into a Bragg mirror made of eight layer pairs of TiO2 and SiO2. The blue curve shows the intensity distribution of a wave with the design wavelength of 1000 nm, incident from the right-hand side. Note that the intensity is oscillating outside the mirror due to the interference of the counterpropagating waves. The gray curve shows the intensity distribution for 800 nm, where a significant part of the light can get through the mirror coating.

field penetration in a Bragg mirror

Figure 1: Field penetration into a Bragg mirror, calculated with the software RP Coating.

Figure 2 shows the reflectivity and the group delay dispersion as functions of the wavelength. The reflectivity is high over some optical bandwidth, which depends on the refractive index contrast of the materials used and on the number of layer pairs. The dispersion is calculated from the second derivative of the reflection phase with respect to the optical frequency. It is small near the center of the reflection band, but grows rapidly near the edges.

reflectivity and dispersion of a Bragg mirror

Figure 2: Reflectivity (black curve) and chromatic dispersion (blue curve) of the same mirror as above.

Figure 3 shows with a color scale how the optical field penetrates into the mirror. It can be seen that there is little field penetration well within the reflection band.

field penetration in a Bragg mirror

Figure 3: Field penetration into the Bragg mirror as a function of wavelength. The colors indicate the optical intensity inside the mirror.

Types of Bragg Mirrors

Bragg mirrors can be fabricated with different technologies:

There are other multilayer mirror designs which deviate from the simple quarter-wave design. They generally have a lower reflectivity for the same number of layers, but can be optimized e.g. as dichroic mirrors or as chirped mirrors for dispersion compensation.

Bibliography

[1]Analysis of a Bragg mirror with the RP Coating software
[2]R. Paschotta, case study on a Bragg mirror

(Suggest additional literature!)

See also: mirrors, Bragg gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, dielectric mirrors, chirped mirrors, laser mirrors, distributed Bragg reflector lasers, distributed feedback lasers

How do you rate this article?

Your general impression: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Technical quality: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Usefulness: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Readability: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Comments:

Found any errors? Suggestions for improvements? Do you know a better web page on this topic?

Spam protection: (enter the value of 5 + 8 in this field!)

If you want a response, you may leave your e-mail address in the comments field, or directly send an e-mail.

If you like our website, you may also want to get our newsletters!

If you like this article, share it with your friends and colleagues, e.g. via social media:

arrow

RP Fiber Power – the versatile Fiber Optics Software

An Amazing Tool

RP Fiber Power software

This amazing tool is extremely helpful for the development of passive and active fiber devices.

ASE

Watch our quick video tour!

Single-mode and Multi­mode Fibers

fibers

Calculate mode properties such as

  • amplitude distributions (near field and far field)
  • effective mode area
  • effective index
  • group delay and chromatic dispersion

Also calculate fiber coupling efficiencies; simulate effects of bending, nonlinear self-focusing or gain guiding on beam propagation, higher-order soliton propagation, etc.

Arbitrary Index Profiles

A fiber's index profile may be more complicated than just a circle:

special fibers

Here, we "printed" some letters, translated this into an index profile and initial optical field, propagated the light over some distance and plotted the output field – all automated with a little script code.

Fiber Couplers, Double-clad Fibers, Multicore Fibers, …

fiber devices

Simulate pump absorption in double-clad fibers, study beam propagation in fiber couplers, light propagation in tapered fibers, analyze the impact of bending, cross-saturation effects in amplifiers, leaky modes, etc.

Fiber Amplifiers

fiber amplifier

For example, calculate

  • gain and saturation characteristics (for continuous or pulsed operation)
  • energy transfers in erbium-ytterbium-doped amplifier fibers
  • influence of quenching effects, amplified spontaneous emission etc.

in single amplifier stages or in multi-stage amplifier systems, with double-clad fibers, etc.

Fiber-optic Telecom Systems

eye diagram

For example,

  • analyze dispersive and nonlinear signal distortions
  • investigate the impact of amplifier noise
  • optimize nonlinear management and the placement of amplifiers

Find out in detail what is going on in such a system!

Fiber Lasers

fiber laser

For example, analyze and optimize the

  • power conversion efficiency
  • wavelength tuning range
  • Q switching dynamics
  • femtosecond pulse generation with mode locking

for lasers based on double-clad fiber, with linear or ring resonator, etc.

Ultrafast Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers

fiber laser

For example, study

  • pulse formation mechanisms
  • impact of nonlinearities and chromatic dispersion
  • parabolic pulse amplification
  • feedback sensitivity
  • supercontinuum generation

Apply any sequence of elements to your pulses!

… and even Bulk Devices

regenerative amplifier

For example, study

  • Q switching dynamics
  • mode-locking behavior
  • impact of nonlinearities and chromatic dispersion
  • influence of a saturable absorber
  • chirped-pulse amplification
  • regenerative amplification

RP Fiber Power is an extremely versatile tool!

Mode Solver

fiber modes

For example, calculate

  • amplitude and intensity profiles
  • effective mode areas
  • cut-off wavelengths
  • propagation constants
  • group velocities
  • chromatic dispersion

All this is calculated with high efficiency!

Beam Propagation

beam propagation

Propagate optical field with arbitrary wavefronts through fibers. These may be asymmetric, bent, tapered, exhibit random disturbances, etc.

See our demo video for numerical beam propagation.

Laser-active Ions

level scheme

Work with the standard gain model, or define your own level scheme!

Can include different ions, energy transfers, upconversion and quenching effects, complicated pumping schemes, etc.

Multiple Pump and Signal Waves, ASE

optical channels

Define multiple pump and signal waves and many ASE channels – each one with its own transverse intensity profile, loss coefficient etc.

The power calculations are highly efficient and reliable.

Simple Use and High Flexibility Combined

For simpler tasks, use convenient forms:

signal parameters

Script code is automatically generated and can then be modified by the user. A powerful script language gives you an unparalleled flexibility!

High-quality Documentation and Competent Support

The carefully prepared comprehensive documentation includes a PDF manual and an interactive online help system.

Competent technical support is provided: the developer himself will help you and make sure that any problem is solved!

Our support is like included technical consulting.

Boost your competence, efficiency and creativity!

  • Stop fishing in the dark! Develop a clear quantitative understanding of your devices.
  • Explore the effects of possible design changes on your desk.
  • That way, get most efficient in the lab.
  • Find optimized solutions efficiently, minimizing time to market.
  • Get new ideas by playing with your models.

Efficiency and success of
R & D are not a matter of chance.

See our detailed description with many case studies!

Contact us to get a quotation!

– Show all banners –

– Get your own banner! –