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Chromium-doped Gain Media

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Definition: laser gain media doped with chromium ions

German: chromdotierte Verstärkermedien

Chromium (chemical symbol: Cr) is a chemical element belonging to the group of transition metals. Chromium ions of different charge states are used as laser-active dopants of gain media:

Due to the strong electron–phonon interaction in such gain media, chromium-doped lasers are called vibronic lasers and have a large gain bandwidth.

Note that some chromium-doped crystals, in particular Cr4+:YAG, are also used as saturable absorbers in Q-switched lasers.


[1]T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby”, Nature 187, 194 (1960)
[2]R. J. Collins et al., “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 5 (7), 303 (1960)
[3]D. Roess, “Analysis of room temperature CW ruby lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 208 (1966)
[4]J. Walling et al., “Tunable CW alexandrite laser”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 120 (1980)
[5]J. Walling et al., “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21 (10), 1568 (1985)
[6]V. Petrivevic et al., “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988)
 [7]S. A. Payne et al., “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: a promising new solid-state laser material”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24 (11), 2243 (1988)
[8]S. A. Payne et al., “Optical spectroscopy of the new laser materials, LiSrAlF6:Cr3+ and LiCaAlF6:Cr3+”, J. Lumin. 44, 167 (1989)
[9]R. Scheps, “Cr-doped solid-state lasers pumped by visible laser diodes”, Opt. Mater. 1, 1 (1992)
[10]M. J. P. Dymott et al., “All-solid-state actively mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser”, Opt. Lett. 19 (9), 634 (1994)
 [11]Cr. R. Pollock et al., “Cr4+ lasers: present performance and prospects for new host lattices”, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1 (1), 62 (1995)
[12]D. Kopf et al., “1.1-W cw Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by a 1-cm diode array”, Opt. Lett. 22 (2), 99 (1997)
 [13]R. H. Page et al., “Cr2+-doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33 (4), 609 (1997)
[14]D. Kopf et al., “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers”, Appl. Phys. B 65, 235 (1997)
 [15]J. M. Hopkins et al., “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser”, Opt. Commun. 154, 54 (1998)
 [16]T. J. Carrig et al., “Mode-locked Cr2+:ZnSe laser”, Opt. Lett. 25 (3), 168 (2000)
 [17]D. J. Ripin et al., “Generation of 20-fs pulses by a prismless Cr4+:YAG laser”, Opt. Lett. 27 (1), 61 (2002)
 [18]P. Wagenblast et al., “Diode-pumped 10-fs Cr3+:LiCAF laser”, Opt. Lett. 28 (18), 1713 (2003)
[19]A. Isemann and C. Fallnich, “High-power colquiriite lasers with high slope efficiencies pumped by broad-area laser diodes”, Opt. Express 11 (3), 259 (2003)
[20]E. Sorokin et al., “Ultrabroadband infrared solid-state lasers”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11 (3), 690 () (a review mainly concerning Cr2+ and Cr4+ lasers)
 [21]M. Sharonov et al., “Near-infrared laser operation of Cr3+ centers in chromium-doped LiInGeO4 and LiScGeO4 crystals”, Opt. Lett. 30 (8), 851 (2005)
 [22]U. Demirbas and A. Sennaroglu, “Intracavity-pumped Cr2+:ZnSe laser with ultrabroad tuning range between 1880 and 3100 nm”, Opt. Lett. 31 (15), 2293 (2006)
[23]M. Sharonov et al., “Continuous tunable laser operation in both the 1.31 and 1.55 μm telecommunication windows in LiIn(Si/Ge)O4 olivines doped with trivalent chromium”, Opt. Lett. 32 (24), 3489 (2007)
[24]S. B. Mirov et al., “Recent progress in transition-metal-doped II–VI mid-IR lasers”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13 (3), 810 ()
 [25]A. Fuerbach et al., “Direct diode-pumped laser operation of Cr3+- doped LiInGeO4 crystals”, Opt. Express 15 (24), 16097 (2007)
 [26]U. Demirbas et al., “Highly efficient, low-cost femtosecond Cr3+:LiCAF laser pumped by single-mode diodes”, Opt. Lett. 33 (6), 590 (2008)
 [27]S. Mirov et al., “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials”, Laser & Photon. Rev. 4 (1), 21 (2010)

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