RP Photonics

Encyclopedia … combined with a great Buyer's Guide!


Composite Laser Crystals

Definition: laser crystals consisting of several parts of different materials or with different chemical compositions (e.g. doping concentrations)

Categories: lasers, optical materials

How to cite the article; suggest additional literature

Composite laser crystals (sometimes called hybrid laser crystals) are laser crystals which have been fabricated by combining different parts. Typically, adhesive-free diffusion bonding of carefully prepared crystal surfaces is used, e.g., to combine an Nd:YAG or Yb:YAG crystal with an undoped YAG crystal. The same can be done e.g. with Nd:YVO4. Another possibility is to bond a Cr:YAG crystal (a saturable absorber material for passive Q switching) to Nd:YAG. In other cases, a nonlinear crystal material for nonlinear frequency conversion is bonded to a laser crystal. Composite gain media can also be made of glasses and from ceramics.

The optical quality of bonded interfaces is essential. Different processes have been developed for obtaining high-quality bonds. Some of these operate at high temperatures, while others can be performed also at room temperature. One may, for example, use irradiation with high-energy ions in a vacuum to remove any disturbing surface layers before bonding. In any case, preparing very flat surfaces is essential.

In the following, some examples of the use of composite gain media are given:

composite laser crystal with undoped end caps
multi-segmented laser rod
core-doped laser rod
thin disk crystal with undoped cap

In other situations, undoped end caps can help to suppress parasitic laser oscillation, and when they are properly shaped (e.g. conically) they can act as ducts for pump radiation. In some single-frequency ring lasers, an undoped section at a point of beam reflection can eliminate spatial hole burning effects.

Note that composite gain media can also be made of ceramics. The fabrication techniques for ceramics introduce a lot of freedom for composite structures, including doping gradients. It is also possible to combine single crystals and ceramics, e.g. to grow undoped ceramic around a doped single crystal.


[1]R. Zhou et a l., “Continuous-wave, 15.2 W diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm”, Opt. Lett. 31 (12), 1869 (2006)
[2]R. Wilhelm et al., “Power scaling of end-pumped solid-state rod lasers by longitudinal dopant concentration gradients”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44 (3), 232 (2008)
[3]Y. T. Chang et al., “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I13/2 transitions”, Opt. Express 16 (25), 21155 (2008)

(Suggest additional literature!)

See also: laser crystals, gain media, ceramic gain media, neodymium-doped gain media, ytterbium-doped gain media, thermal lensing, high-power lasers
and other articles in the categories lasers, optical materials

Dr. R. Paschotta

This encyclopedia is authored by Dr. RĂ¼diger Paschotta, the founder and executive of RP Photonics Consulting GmbH. Contact this distinguished expert in laser technology, nonlinear optics and fiber optics, and find out how his technical consulting services (e.g. product designs, problem solving, independent evaluations, or staff training) and software could become very valuable for your business!

How do you rate this article?

Click here to send us your feedback!

Your general impression: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Technical quality: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Usefulness: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Readability: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent

Found any errors? Suggestions for improvements? Do you know a better web page on this topic?

Spam protection: (enter the value of 5 + 8 in this field!)

If you want a response, you may leave your e-mail address in the comments field, or directly send an e-mail.

If you enter any personal data, this implies that you agree with storing it; we will use it only for the purpose of improving our website and possibly giving you a response; see also our declaration of data privacy.

If you like our website, you may also want to get our newsletters!

If you like this article, share it with your friends and colleagues, e.g. via social media: