RP Photonics logo
RP Photonics
Encyclopedia
Technical consulting services on lasers, nonlinear optics, fiber optics etc.
Profit from the knowledge and experience of a top expert!
Powerful simulation and design software.
Make computer models in order to get a comprehensive understanding of your devices!
Success comes from understanding – be it in science or in industrial development.
The famous Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology – available online for free!
The ideal place for finding suppliers for many photonics products.
Advertisers: Make sure to have your products displayed here!
… combined with a great Buyer's Guide!
VLib part of the
Virtual
Library

Cross-phase Modulation

<<<  |  >>>  |  Feedback

Buyer's Guide

Use the RP Photonics Buyer's Guide to find suppliers for photonics products! You will hardly find a more convenient resource.

Acronym: XPM

Definition: a nonlinear effect where the optical intensity of one beam influences the phase change of another beam

German: Kreuzphasenmodulation

Category: nonlinear optics

How to cite the article; suggest additional literature

Cross-phase modulation is the change in the optical phase of a light beam caused by the interaction with another beam in a nonlinear medium, specifically a Kerr medium. This can be described as a change in the refractive index:

index change via XPM

where n2 is the nonlinear index. Here, the intensity I(1) of beam 1 causes a refractive index change for beam 2.

Compared with the corresponding equation for self-phase modulation, there is an additional factor of 2. This factor 2 is valid for beams with the same polarization; for cross-polarized beams in isotropic media (e.g. glasses), it must be replaced with 2/3.

A more fundamental description of cross-phase modulation effects refers to the nonlinear polarization caused in the medium, based on the χ(3) nonlinearity. For example, the above-mentioned factor 2 can be understood on that basis.

Effects of Cross-phase Modulation

Cross-phase modulation can be relevant under different circumstances:

Bibliography

[1]M. N. Islam et al., “Cross-phase modulation in optical fibers”, Opt. Lett. 12 (8), 625 (1987)
[2]M. Shtaif, “Analytical description of cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers”, Opt. Lett. 23 (15), 1191 (1998)
[3]A. Fellegara and S. Wabnitz, “Electrostrictive cross-phase modulation of periodic pulse trains in optical fibers”, Opt. Lett. 23 (17), 1357 (1998)
[4]M. Margalit et al., “Cross phase modulation squeezing in optical fibers”, Opt. Express 2 (3), 72 (1998)
[5]N. Matsuda et al., “Observation of optical-fibre Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon levels”, Nature Photon. 3, 95 (2009)
[6]G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th edn., Academic Press, New York (2007)
[7]R. Paschotta, tutorial on "Passive Fiber Optics", Part 11: Nonlinearities of Fibers

(Suggest additional literature!)

See also: Kerr effect, self-phase modulation, Spotlight article 2008-02-12

How do you rate this article?

Click here to send us your feedback!

Your general impression: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Technical quality: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Usefulness: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Readability: don't know poor satisfactory good excellent
Comments:

Found any errors? Suggestions for improvements? Do you know a better web page on this topic?

Spam protection: (enter the value of 5 + 8 in this field!)

If you want a response, you may leave your e-mail address in the comments field, or directly send an e-mail.

If you like our website, you may also want to get our newsletters!

If you like this article, share it with your friends and colleagues, e.g. via social media:

arrow

Fiber Optics Software
with Further Improved
User Interface

In RP Fiber Power V6, one can use nice custom forms, which can be
tailored to specific applications.

custom form in RP Fiber Power

Users can make such forms themselves, or get them from RP Photonics within the technical support. The latter is like buying a custom software for every purpose – but without spending a lot of money every time!

Beginners can now get started very easily, even if they need quite special calculations!

– Show all banners –

– Get your own banner! –