RP Photonics logo
RP Photonics
Technical consulting services on lasers, nonlinear optics, fiber optics etc.
Profit from the knowledge and experience of a top expert!
Powerful simulation and design software.
Make computer models in order to get a comprehensive understanding of your devices!
Success comes from understanding – be it in science or in industrial development.
The famous Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology – available online for free!
The ideal place for finding suppliers for many photonics products.
Advertisers: Make sure to have your products displayed here!
… combined with a great Buyer's Guide!
VLib part of the

Metastable States

<<<  |  >>>

Definition: excited states (particularly electronic states in laser gain media) which have a relatively long lifetime due to slow radiative and non-radiative decay

German: metastabile Zustände

Category: physical foundations

How to cite the article; suggest additional literature

Solid-state gain media usually have a metastable electronic state as upper laser level, and often some additional metastable states (energy levels). Such states occur in situations where neither radiative nor non-radiative processes can lead to a rapid depopulation of a certain state. Radiative processes can be strongly reduced if all transitions to lower levels are so-called forbidden transitions (or weakly allowed transitions), for which efficient dipole processes are not possible. Strong non-radiative decay processes can arise from multi-phonon transitions and from quenching caused by certain impurities, but such mechanisms can often be avoided. The upper-state lifetime, i.e. the lifetime of the upper laser level, can then be microseconds or even milliseconds – for example, typically around 8–10 ms for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, or roughly 1–2 ms for ytterbium-doped gain media.

energy levels of thulium ions

Figure 1: Level scheme of thulium (Tm3+) ions in ZBLAN fluoride fiber. The levels 3H4, 3F4 and 1G4 are metastable.

As an example, Figure 1 shows the energy level scheme of thulium (Tm3+) ions. In fluoride fibers, having very low phonon energies, the levels 3H4, 3F4 and 1G4 are metastable, whereas e.g. 3H5 is quenched by multi-phonon processes which transfer the ions to 3H4. These circumstances make it possible to pump thulium ions efficiently into the 1G4 level, from where blue light can be emitted. This is exploited in some upconversion fiber lasers. For thulium ions in silica fibers, 3F4 has a much shorter lifetime, since multi-phonon processes are much stronger. Therefore, silica fibers are not usable for such upconversion lasers.

Generally, laser gain media do not have to exhibit metastable levels; a short-lived level can still be used as the upper laser level provided that the emission cross sections are large enough. (For the threshold pump power, the στ product is the essential quantity.) However, long metastable level lifetimes are very important for Q-switched lasers, as they permit significant energy storage. They also have a strong impact on the laser dynamics, including spiking phenomena. Finally, three-level laser transitions are hardly possibly without metastable levels, since a substantial upper-state population as needed for positive net gain would be difficult to achieve.

In laser modeling of doped-insulator solid-state lasers, one usually considers population only of metastable states and the ground state, because only a vanishingly small proportion of the laser-active ions can be in other (short-lived) states. This can substantially simplify laser models.

See also: upper-state lifetime, forbidden transitions, Q switching, Q-switched lasers, spiking
and other articles in the category physical foundations

If you like this article, share it with your friends and colleagues, e.g. via social media: