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Optical Intensity

Definition: optical power per unit area

German: optische Intensität

Categories: general optics, light detection and characterization

Formula symbol: I

Units: W/m2, W/cm2

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The optical intensity I, e.g. of a laser beam at some location, is in most cases understood to the optical power per unit area, which is transmitted through an imagined surface perpendicular to the propagation direction. The units of the optical intensity (or light intensity) are W/m2 or (more commonly) W/cm2. The intensity is the product of photon energy and photon flux. It is sometimes called optical energy flux.

In radiometry and photometry, intensity is often understood to be the radiant or luminous power per unit solid angle; this must not be confused with the optical intensity as usually used in optics and laser technology.

When light is received by a surface, an optical intensity causes an irradiance, which is the intensity times the angle against normal direction. Note that the two quantities are different, although they have the same units.

Optical intensities and powers are normally understood as quantities which are averaged over at least one oscillation cycle. In other words, they are not considered to be oscillating on the time scale of an optical oscillation.

For a monochromatic propagating wave, such as a plane wave or a Gaussian beam, the local intensity is related to the amplitude E of the electric field via

optical intensity from electric field

where vp is the phase velocity, c is the vacuum velocity of light, and n is the refractive index. For non-monochromatic waves, the intensity contributions of different spectral components can simply be added, if beat notes are not of interest.

Note that the above equation does not hold for arbitrary electromagnetic fields. For example, an evanescent wave may have a finite electrical amplitude while not transferring any power. The intensity should then be defined as the magnitude of the Poynting vector.

For a laser beam with a flat-top intensity profile (i.e., with a constant intensity over some area, and zero intensity outside), the intensity is simply the optical power P divided by the beam area. For a Gaussian beam with optical power P and Gaussian beam radius w, the peak intensity (on the beam axis) is

peak intensity of Gaussian beam

which is two times higher than is often assumed. The equation can be verified by integrating the intensity over the whole beam area, which must result in the total power.

In a multimode laser beam, generated in a laser where higher-order transverse resonator modes are excited, the shape of the transverse intensity profile can undergo significant changes as the relative optical phases of the modes change with time. The peak intensity can then vary, and may occur at locations at some distance from the beam axis.

The term intensity is often used in a non-quantitative or not very precise way, and not clearly distinguished from the optical power. For example, the intensity noise normally refers to noise (fluctuations) of the optical power, rather than the intensity.

Optical intensities are relevant in various situations:

Beam profilers can be used for measuring the shape of the intensity profile of a laser beam.

See also: irradiance, optical power, optical phase, Gaussian beams, laser beams, brightness, intensity noise, laser-induced damage, radiation pressure
and other articles in the categories general optics, light detection and characterization


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